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          史上第二位女性諾貝爾經濟學獎得主,曾入選《財富》40位40歲以下精英

          Anne Sraders 2019年10月20日

          在獲獎后的一場新聞發布會上,迪弗洛表示希望自己能激勵經濟學領域的女性。

          10月14日,2019年諾貝爾經濟學獎得主埃斯特·迪弗洛成為該獎項最年輕(也是第二位)的女性,并表示“備感謙卑”。

          現年46歲的迪弗洛來自于麻省理工學院,本次跟同在麻省理工學院的丈夫阿比吉特·班納吉,還有哈佛大學的邁克爾·克雷默一道,因為在全球扶貧方面的實驗性方法而榮獲獎項。三人的研究探索了貧困的成因,也采取實地試驗判斷教育、醫療、農業和其他項目對貧困人口的幫助。獎金方面,由三人分享900萬瑞典克朗(91.6萬美元)的現金獎勵。目前三位教授的主要研究對象為非洲和印度。

          在獲獎后的一場新聞發布會上,迪弗洛表示希望自己能激勵經濟學領域的女性。迪弗洛是自1969年以來第二位榮獲經濟學獎的女性(首位女性經濟學獎得主是2009年獲獎的埃莉諾·奧斯特羅姆)。

          “我希望,如果可以證明女性能夠獲得成功并獲得認可,可以激勵很多很多女性繼續努力工作,也促使很多男性給予她們作為人應得的尊重。”她說。

          此外,迪弗洛在隨后的電話采訪中告訴諾貝爾獎委員會,“經濟學圈開始意識到,整體環境和對待彼此的方式對于吸引更多女性投身該領域并不友好。”她補充說,“比如人們在研討會上交談和講話的方式,我們要繼續努力,確保對女性更尊重也更接受,讓女性不必大聲疾呼才能獲得注意。”

          這位麻省理工學院的教授長期研究與貧困相關的挑戰,2010年曾經獲得約翰·貝茨·克拉克獎。她也是2009年麥克阿瑟“天才”獎學金的獲得者,之前曾經入選《財富》雜志40位40歲以下的商界精英榜單。

          “說實話,我備感謙卑。”迪弗洛在獲得諾貝爾獎的新聞發布會上說。“我認為年紀超過我們三個人之前,沒有可能獲得諾貝爾經濟學獎。”

          她表示,自己和其他獲獎者都希望從科學的角度解決貧困問題。“窮人常常變成諷刺漫畫的內容,就連想施以援手的人往往也不清楚窮人面臨問題的深層根源。”

          該團隊的研究已經產生重大的影響。瑞典皇家科學院的聲明稱,正因為幾位經濟學家的試驗,印度有500萬兒童在學校接受補習輔導,還有一些國家推出了預防保健補貼。

          迪弗洛說,希望通過研究“一一找出問題,并盡可能嚴格和科學地解決。”(財富中文網)

          譯者:Charlie

          審校:夏林

          Nobel Prize in Economics’ 2019 winner Esther Duflo became the youngest (and second) woman to win the award on October 14, and says it is “incredibly humbling.”

          Duflo, 46, who hails from MIT, won the prize along with her husband Abhijit Banerje of MIT and Harvard’s Michael Kremer for their work on an experimental approach to alleviate global poverty. The trio’s work explored the causes of poverty and did field experiments to determine how those in poverty respond to education, healthcare, agriculture and other programs. The trio received a 9 million Swedish kronor ($916,000) cash award as part of the prize. The professors’ work has primarily focused on Africa and India.

          In comments made at a news conference following her win, Duflo, as only the second woman to win the prize since its inception in 1969 (the first woman to win the prize was Elinor Ostrom in 2009), said she wants to be an inspiration for women in her field.

          “Showing that it is possible for a woman to succeed and be recognized for success I hope is going to inspire many, many other women to continue working and many other men to give them the respect that they deserve like every single human being,” she said.

          Additionally, Duflo told nobelprize.org in a later phone interview that “the profession is starting to realize the climate and the way we treat each other is not conducive for having more women in the profession.” She added that, “it’s how people talk to each other and address each other in seminars, that we need to work on to ensure it’s more respectful and will be more acceptable for women to think they don’t have to play the games of shouting at each other.”

          The MIT professor has long worked on challenges related to poverty, and previously won the John Bates Clark Medal in 2010. She was also the recipient of the MacArthur “genius” Fellowship in 2009, and was previously named to Fortune’s 40 Under 40.

          “It was incredibly humbling to tell you the truth,” Duflo said during the news conference of winning the Nobel prize. “I didn’t think it was possible to win the Nobel prize in economics before being significantly older than any of the three of us.”

          Duflo and her fellow recipients wanted to approach the problem of poverty from a scientific angle, she said. “Often the poor are reduced to caricatures, and often even people that try to help them often do not actually understand what are the deep root of the problems that are addressing the poor,” Duflo said.

          The team’s research has already made a big impact. As a result of some of their experiments, 5 million children in India have received remedial tutoring in schools, and some countries have introduced subsidies for preventative healthcare, according to a statement from the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences.

          Duflo says their research seeks to “unpack the the problems, one by one, and address them as rigorously and scientifically as possible.”

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