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          與機器人共舞:如何在自動化時代與科技競爭

          Gwen Moran 2019年09月23日

          定期學習新技能、參加新培訓的雇員將比那些靠經驗或閱歷的雇員更受公司的重視。但新技能的學習并非易事。

          商業人士控制自動機器人臂機械科技,工業5.0,人工智能趨勢概念,正值日出黎明時刻。圖片來源:Jiraroj Praditcharoenkul—Getty Images

          隨著機器人、人工智能、機器學習在內的科技和其他力量逐漸改變工作性質,雇員們將需要通過掌握新技能來適應不斷變化的職責。調研公司Gartner預測,定期學習新技能、參加新培訓的雇員將比那些靠經驗或閱歷的雇員更受公司的重視。但新技能的學習并非易事。

          世界經濟論壇《2018未來工作》報告預計,到2022年,超過半數(54%)的雇員將需要對技能進行大幅更新或參加再培訓。如果要迎頭趕上,超過三分之一(35%)將需要約6個月的時間,而近五分之一的員工則需要一年的時間或更多的額外培訓。

          雇主在這一方面可能發揮不了太大的作用。咨詢公司德勤2019年全球雇主調查顯示,86%的受調對象將“學習和培養改善”的需求評為“重要”或“非常重要”。但僅有10%的受調對象認為已經為解決這一需求做好了準備或“做好了充分準備”。2018年Gartner的報告發現,隨著眾多企業受到數字轉型的影響,僅有20%的雇員擁有當前和未來工作所需的技能。

          對于那些對自己今后就業前景感到擔憂的員工來說,他們在努力方向上存在著不少疑問。

          常駐弗吉尼亞州阿靈頓的Gartner人力資源研究業務負責人布萊恩·克洛普稱:“幾乎在所有工作中,人們所需的技能每5年就得更新一次,而且我們完全有理由相信,這個時限會進一步縮短。”那些異常看重自己今后就業前景的雇員則必須依靠自己來確保自己在人才市場中的緊俏性。

          尋找關注點

          Job-Hunt.org發行人、職業專家蘇珊喬伊斯說表示,一開始,人們只需通過招聘廣告來發現新興崗位所需的技能。Job-Hunt.org是一家總部位于馬薩諸塞州馬爾堡的求職網站。她指出,隨著某些工具和科技在特定領域的使用率越來越高,使用它們所需的技能也將被列入某些職務的技能清單。她說:“如果當前要求的某些技能在一年前并未出現過,這就是一個信號。”

          她還表示,同樣,查看自己所在領域科技提供商的新成果也可以幫助你與時俱進。例如,如果你在人力資源部門工作,關注績效管理平臺或求職者跟蹤系統的發展情況,可能有助于你了解應更新哪方面的技能。

          倫敦保險咨詢公司Willis Towers Watson的未來工作報告全球負責人特雷西·馬爾科姆表示,很多新技能都位于數字領域。她說,因此除了掌握科技本身之外,人們可能還得學會利用這種科技來進行工作。

          世界經濟論壇報告稱,科技設計和編程的需求越來越大。馬爾科姆表示,然而并非所有人都得成為數據科學家或編程高手。人們手頭現有的軟件或云平臺上可能就存在基于人工智能的工具,以幫助人們發現生產力改進或自動化機遇。她說,人們有必要學會使用這些工具并與其互動,然后閱讀、理解和應用它們所提供的數據。

          她說:“隨著我們尋求利用不同的科技來衡量員工的績效表現,我們實際上就需要采用非常超前的思維模式。”

          馬爾科姆還表示,學會適應數據并不僅僅是查看界面或數據表格。人們需要異常熟悉與工作相關的數據,這樣人們才能夠進行假設和情景規劃。例如,當人們發現生產力出現下降時,或者自己并沒有完成其他指標,人們就需要審視數據源和可能對結果造成負面影響的情景,然后思考可以通過改變哪些事物來改善業績。

          軟技能也很重要

          除了對科技、數字和數據的敏銳度之外,職場對軟技能的需求也將逐步攀升。勞工人種學者卡拉·艾瑞克森指出,有鑒于職場環境的快速變化,以及計算機讓工作變得更加直接,更注重事實的現象,與同事溝通、合作和有效共事的能力將變得至關重要。艾瑞克森是愛荷華州格林內爾學院的社會學教授。

          艾瑞克森說:“我覺得,人們應該培養的能力包括:做好團隊成員的能力,預見能力,以及在突發事件中從容應對復雜局面的能力等。”

          除了成為精通技術的“同事”之外,雇員還應有能力靈活地應對充斥著更多承包商和臨時員工的職場。

          世界經濟論壇的報告預測,到2022年,職場對“人際”技能的需求將高漲,例如創意、原創性和首創性、批判性思維、說服和協商能力。情商、復雜問題解決能力以及靈活性也是十分重要。人們在參加研討班、培訓、輔導以及開展其他類型的技能培養時不應忽略上述領域。

          做好成長的準備

          克洛普和他的團隊預測,到2024年,64%的常規性管理任務,例如填寫開支報告、監測儀表盤等等,將被自動化取代。成功的雇員將利用新出現的空余時間來專注于高價值活動。畢竟,科技總是要實現其自身巨大價值,并將員工從機械任務中解放出來。克洛普說,但員工必須明智地使用這些時間。

          他說:“因此,人們不妨審視一下,自己的哪些工作能夠在實際當中提供洞見、理念、新方法、新解決方案,或者審視一下那些自己首次嘗試做的事情。人們得問自己:在獲取技能、能力、知識方面,哪些事情是力所能及的,而且這些技能、能力、知識有助于自己關注那些能夠帶來更多洞見的事情,而不僅僅是完成任務。”如果你知道這個問題的答案,你就會找到那些最不可能因為科技而被淘汰的領域。(財富中文網)

          譯者:馮豐

          審校:夏林

          As technology, including robots, artificial intelligence, machine learning, and other forces change the nature of work, employees will need new skills to adapt to shifting roles. Research firm Gartner predicts that employees who regularly update their skill sets and invest in new training will be more valued than those with experience or tenure. But it’s not going to be easy.

          The World Economic Forum’s “Future of Jobs 2018” report estimates that, by 2022, more than half (54%) of employees will require significant skills updating or retraining. More than one-third (35%) will need about six months to get up to speed, while nearly one in five will require a year or more of additional training.

          And employers might not be much help. A 2019 global survey of employers by consulting firm Deloitte found that 86% of respondents rated the need to improve learning and development (L&D) as “important” or “very important.” But just 10% felt ready to “very ready” to address that need. As digital transformation affects so many businesses, a 2018 Gartner report found that just 20% of employees have the skills they need for their jobs now and in the future.

          For workers who are concerned about remaining marketable, this raises a number of questions about where they should invest their efforts.

          “In almost every job, you need a different set of skills than you did five years ago, and there’s no reason to believe that number’s going to get smaller,” says Brian Kropp, the Arlington, Virginia-based chief of human resources research at Gartner. Employees who are serious about remaining marketable must take it upon themselves to remain in demand in the marketplace.

          Finding the focus

          Identifying skills with emerging demand can begin with simply keeping abreast of job ads, says career expert Susan P. Joyce, publisher of Job-Hunt.org, a Marlborough, Mass.-based website for job seekers. As certain tools and technologies become more widely adopted in a given field, the skills required to use them are going to be listed as requirements for certain positions, she says. “If something’s required now that wasn’t a year ago, that’s a sign,” she says.

          Similarly, watching new developments from technology providers in your sector can also help keep you ahead of the curve, she says. For example, if you work in human resources, keeping an eye on how performance management platforms or applicant tracking systems are evolving may help you spot where you need to upskill.

          Many of those skills will be in the digital arena, says Tracey Malcolm, global leader, Future of Work, at Willis Towers Watson, an insurance and advisory company based in London. So, in addition to being comfortable with technology, you’ll likely need to become comfortable working with technology, she says.

          The World Economic Forum report says that technology design and programming are increasingly in demand. But, not everyone has to be a data scientist or coder, Malcolm says. You may have A.I.-powered tools operating within your existing software or cloud-based platforms to help you identify productivity improvements or automation opportunities. You need to be adept at using and interacting with those tools, and then reading, understanding and applying the data they provide, she says.

          “As we look to have our performance augmented with different forms of technology, that is going to require us to actually think in very forward-looking ways,” she says.

          Getting comfortable with data isn’t just about looking at dashboards or spreadsheets. You need to be conversant enough in the data that relates to your job that you can think about hypotheses and scenario planning, Malcolm adds. For example, when you see that productivity has slowed or that you’re not meeting other metrics, you need to be able to think about the sources of the data and circumstances that may have affected the outcome, then think about how various changes could improve results.

          Soft skills matter, too

          In addition to technology, digital, and data acumen, soft skills are also going to be increasingly in demand. As workplace environments experience fast-paced change and computers add a more straightforward, just-the-facts element to work, the ability to communicate, collaborate, and effectively work with others will be essential, says labor ethnographer Karla Erickson, a professor of sociology at Grinnell College in Grinnell, Iowa.

          “Being a team member, being able to anticipate, moving smoothly through complexity when the unexpected arises, those are the kinds of tools that I think people should be working on,” Erickson says.

          In addition to technology-based “co-workers,” employees are also going to need to be flexible to accommodate workplaces that include more contractors and contingent workers.

          The World Economic Forum report predicts great demand by 2022 for “'human’ skills such as creativity, originality and initiative, critical thinking, persuasion and negotiation.” Emotional intelligence, complex-problem-solving, and flexibility are also important. Workshops, training, mentorship, and other forms of skills development shouldn’t overlook these areas.

          Get ready to grow

          Kropp and his team estimate that, by 2024, 64% of typical managerial tasks—filling out expense reports, monitoring dashboards, etc.—will be automated. Successful employees will use that newfound free time to focus on high-value activities. After all, this is technology fulfilling its great promise and untethering workers from rote tasks. But workers must use that time wisely, Kropp says.

          “So, you want to be looking at what you do within your job that actually generates insight, generates ideas, new approaches, new solutions, things that are tried for the first time, and you need to ask yourself the question, what are things I can do within myself, in terms of developing skills, capabilities, knowledge, that helps me focus on those things that are more insights, rather than tasks?” he says. When you can answer that, you will have found the areas least likely to be eliminated because of technology.

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